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Wpisał: Dr. Thomas Seiler   

Inflation, dark matter and dark energy - free parameters?

The Cosmological Hypothesis


[sygnalizuję osobom zainteresowanym pochodzeniem Wszystkiego Materialnego – Wszechświata, życia itp – ciekawą stronę . Poważna, fascynująca, choćby przez to, że przemilczana w me®diach naukawych. MD]

wzięte z: Cosmology, Thermodynamics and the Christian Doctrine of Creation

by Dr. Thomas Seiler


One way of extrapolating from presently observable natural processes all the way back to the beginning of the world to explain the origins of the world is the so-called “Big-Bang Theory”. Starting from the well-known physical effect of a wave-length increase (“red-shift”) when a source of light is moving away from the observer, Edwin Hubble suggested in the 20th century that the observable red-shift of the star-light is caused by a constant movement of the stars away from us. If the velocity v of the stars can indeed be measured by their red-shift – an interpretation which Hubble himself doubted until the end of his life – and if the distance of the stars can really be measured by their brightness, then it was thought to be possible to derive an age of the universe by a simple calculation: t = s/v. In this way, astronomers arrive at the now widely accepted age of 13.7 billion years.

However, even under the assumption that the derivation of velocity and distance are correct, this approach still contains an unscientific pre-assumption, namely that the velocity of the stars has been the same all the way back to the beginning of creation, in fulfillment of St. Peter‘s prediction.

However, there is good reason to assume that the red-shifts and also the observed brightnesses of the stars can at least partly be due to other, known and unknown physical processes. A diagram showing recently reported results of measurements of the Hubble constant reveals that this quantity which is just the quotient of star velocity divided by star distance has an uncertainty of 100 %. [in orig. md]

“Hubble‘s law” says that the quotient of red-shift and brightness is a constant for all stars [and galaxies. MD] . Without this, the calculations of the Big-Bang theory would not work as not all stars would start at the same time from the same point. Therefore, if the big bang theory were true, then the observed discrepancies in the Hubble constant mean that either the measurement results of the red-shift or of the brightness or of both are interpreted partially or completely in a wrong way.

However, if we assume that the big-bang theory is true then we are given the opportunity to see not only events which are far away in space but also events which are far away in the past. This follows from the fact that the light coming from distant stars would need much time to reach us. Therefore, when we look at a star at the end of the universe then we see the first part of the light beam which was sent out ca. 13 billion years ago. Therefore, we see the “young” part of the light beam which tells us what happened at an early stage of the universe. For nearby stars the situation is different. Although they would have started to emit their light at the same time as the distant stars most of the light beam would already have passed by us. We would only see older parts of the light beam telling us something about events in a later stage of the universe.

Under these circumstances we should see distant galaxies always in a much more immature state as nearby galaxies which is not the case. Furthermore, the observed rotation speed of spiral galaxies is not compatible with a long rotation time. The stars would long ago have been thrown outside the galaxy which is not the case. In order to account for that unexpected observation, an unknown form of gravity was introduced called “dark matter”.

Another contradiction to the big-bang model is the observation of a very homogeneous cosmic microwave background radiation. To compensate for this, an early cosmic “inflation phase” – a rapid initial expansion of the universe, faster than the speed of light – has been introduced. And the unexpected result of an apparently accelerated expansion of the cosmos led to the introduction of an unknown quantity called “dark energy”.

In response to these developments, 33 cosmologists have published an open letter to the scientific community expressing their doubts with regard  to the big bang model (from

The big bang today relies on a growing number of hypothetical entities, things that we have never observed - inflation, dark matter and dark energy are the most prominent examples. Without them, there would be a fatal contradiction between the observations made by astronomers and the predictions of the big bang theory. In no other field of physics would this continual recourse to new hypothetical objects be accepted as a way of bridging the gap between theory and observation. It would, at the least, raise serious questions about the validity of the underlying theory.

Lerner, E., Bucking the big bang, New Scientist 182 (2448) 20, 22 May 2004

To summarize, big-bang theorists came to the conclusion that 96 % of the universe is composed of something that is unknown from any physical measurement. In other words, they have to agree with St. Peter that it is not possible to explain the origin of the world by extrapolating from known physical processes all the way back to the beginning of time.

The agreement with Fiat Creation has recently been admitted in an astronomical journal by these words:

“This and many other recent astronomical observations point increasingly to the conclusion that a mature, active, evolving and expanding universe could have come into being in an instant creation.

European Southern Observatory in Spaceflight, November 2004, Vol. 45, No. 11


Zmieniony ( 13.01.2016. )
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