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Is There Intelligent Life in Outer Space? Drukuj Email
Wpisał: Bert Thompson,   

Is There Intelligent Life in Outer Space?



                  Bert Thompson, Ph.D.

                  Q.   I have heard a lot about the possibility of life in outer

                  space. Has science established that extraterrestrial life does

                  exist? What, if anything, does the Bible have to say on this


                  A. There can be little doubt that the prospect of intelligent

                  life existing in outer space has intrigued evolutionary

                  scientists for generations. Pick up almost any evolution

                  textbook, and you will find a reference to, brief discussion

                  of, or whole chapter on, extraterrestrial life.

                  Some years ago, Carl Sagan, the late astronomer of Cornell

                  University, raised private funding for a radio telescope that


                would search the skies for a message coming in to us from

                  supposed extraterrestrial beings. Dr. Sagan, and Dr. Frank

                  Drake, were asked by the National Aeronautics and Space

                 Administration (NASA) to design an interstellar communication

                  specifically aimed at extraterrestrials, in hopes of letting

                  them know that we are here. Consequently, attached to NASA's

                  Pioneer 10 and Pioneer 11 spaceprobes (1973) were identical

                  gold plaques, inscribed with pictorial messages sent across

                  the light-years to tell about Earth's civilization. Since that

                  time, various other attempts either to accept communications

                  from alleged extraterrestrials, or to communicate with them,

                  have been made.


                  One might ask: "Why all the interest in the possibility of

                  intelligent life existing in outer space?" There are several

                  answers to such a question.

                  First, there are some who firmly believe in the existence of

                  intelligent extraterrestrial life because they are convinced

                  that, if life evolved here, it not only could have evolved

                  elsewhere, but must have done so. Carl Sagan is but one

                  example of evolutionists who follow this line of reasoning. In

                  an interview in January 17, 1980 issue of New Scientist

                  magazine, Dr. Sagan made the following points:

                    There are something like 1022 stars in the Universe, and as

                    about one in a million of these stars is a yellow dwarf star

                    like our Sun, this means there are about 1016 Sun-type stars

                    in the Universe.

                    Now one in a million of these Sun-type stars probably has a

                planetary system similar to that of our Sun's. Therefore


                    there are about 1010 planetary systems in the Universe.

                    One in a million of these planetary systems must have a

                    planet similar to that of Earth, and life must have evolved

                    on those planets in the same manner in which it has evolved

                    here on Earth. Therefore, there are at least 10,000 planets

                    in the Universe that have life on them.

                  Paul Davies, the renowned physicist and cosmologist, stated in

                  his book, Other Worlds:

                    Our galaxy, the Milky Way, contains about 100 billion stars

                    grouped together in a gigantic spiral assembly typical of

                    the billions of other galaxies scattered throughout the

                    universe. This means that there is nothing very special

                    about the Earth, so probably life is not a remarkable

                    phenomenon either.... [I]t would be surprising if life were

                    not widespread throughout the cosmos, though it may be

                    rather sparse (1980, p. 151).

                  Sir Fred Hoyle joins such thinkers. In his book, Lifecloud, he

                  wrote: "With so many possible planetary systems, should we not

                  expect inhabited planets to be moving around some of the

                  nearby stars? We certainly should" (1978, pp. 145-146). It is

                  evident, then, that many evolutionists believe intelligent

                  life exists on other planets simply because evolution must

                  work that way.

                  Second, there are some who believe life will be found in outer

                  space because life simply could not have "just happened" here

                  on the Earth. However, far from invoking a Creator, their

                  intended point is simply that the available evidence indicates

                  that life is too complex to have occurred here on the Earth by

                  purely naturalistic processes. So, life must have evolved

                  somewhere in outer space and been planted here. This is the

                  view of Sir Francis Crick in his volume, Life Itself:

                    If a particular amino acid sequence was selected by chance,

                    how rare an event would this be?... Suppose the chain is

                    about two hundred amino acids long; this is, if anything,

                    rather less than the average length of proteins of all

                    types. Since we have just twenty possibilities at each

                    place, the number of possibilities is twenty multiplied by

                    itself some two hundred times. This is approximately equal

                    to...a one followed by 260 zeros.... The great majority of

                    sequences can never have been synthesized at all, at any

                    time (1981, p. 51).

                  Dr. Crick then made the following fascinating admission: "An

                  honest man, armed with all the knowledge available to us now,

                  could only state that in some sense, the origin of life

                  appears at the moment to be almost a miracle, so many are the

                  conditions which would have had to have been satisfied to get

                  it going" (p. 88, emp. added). But, while acknowledging the

                  impossibility of the accidental formation of life here on the

                  Earth, he refuses to accept the idea of an intelligent

                  Creator, and instead opts for "directed panspermia"-the idea

                  that life was "planted" on the Earth by intelligent beings

                  from outer space.

                  Dr. Crick is not alone in this viewpoint. The same year that

                  Life Itself was published (1981), Sir Fred Hoyle authored Life

                  from Space, in which ....

............he took essentially the same position. In

                  fact, in an article that year in Nature, he wrote:

                    The likelihood of the formation of life from inanimate mater

                    is one to a number with 40,000 noughts after it.... It is

                    big enough to bury Darwin and the whole theory of evolution.

                    There was no primeval soup, neither on this planet nor on

                    any other, and if the beginnings of life were not random,

                    they must therefore have been the product of purposeful

                    intelligence (1981, 294:148).

                  Dr. Hoyle opted for a kind of pantheistic intelligence that

                  created life spores in other parts of the Universe, with these

                  spores ultimately drifting to Earth to begin life as we know

                  it. Because of the tremendous (and impressive) complexity of

                  life-and the obvious design behind it-other scientists are

                  opting for this viewpoint as well. Leslie Orgel, one of the

                  heavyweights in origin-of-life experiments, is on record as

                  advocating this position (1982, pp. 149-152).

                  Third, there are, without a doubt, some evolutionists who are

                  determined to believe in some form of intelligent

                  extraterrestrial life because they are convinced this somehow

                  will nullify creation. For example, Ian Ridpath, in his book,

                  Signs of Life, has suggested: "Religions which contend that

                  God made man in His own image could be severely shaken if we

                  found another intellectual race made in a different image"

                  (1975, p. 13).

                  Jonathan N. Leonard likewise has shown his disdain for the

                  concept of creation in his classic essay, Other-Worldly Life:

                    Scientists point out that there is nothing miraculous or

                    unrepeatable about the appearance of life on earth. They

                    believe it would happen again, given the same sufficient

                    time and the same set of circumstances. It would even happen

                    under very different circumstances. There is no reason to

                    believe that conditions in the atmosphere and oceans of the

                    primitive earth were modified by any outside power to make

                    them favorable for the development of life. They just

                    happened that way, and it is likely that life would have

                    appeared even if conditions had been considerably different

                    (1984, pp. 186-187).

                  Such writers make it clear that they believe if

                  extraterrestrial life were to be discovered, it somehow would

                  "disprove" the existence of a Creator.

                  A CRITIQUE

                  What response should the creationist offer to these various

                  evolutionary positions on the existence of intelligent life in

                  outer space?

                  First, let us note that any claims made concerning the

                  existence of life in outer space are just that-claims-and

                  nothing more. In their more candid moments, even evolutionists

                  admit such. Michael Rowan-Robinson of the University of London

                  has observed:

                    From the almost imperceptible wanderings of several nearby

                    stars we can deduce that they have small companions, but the

                    masses of the companions deduced in this way are, with one

                    exception, one or two per cent of our Sun's mass, that is

                    10-20 times the mass of Jupiter. Such objects could in fact

                    be tiny stars, rather than planets, for they may be

                    undergoing nuclear reactions in their core. This one

                    exception is Barnard's star, the next nearest to the Sun

                    after the Centauri system, five light years away. It has

                    been claimed that this star has one or two companions of

                    mass about that of Jupiter. This is still a matter of

                    dispute between astronomers. It is an act of faith, based on

                    rather shaky probabilistic arguments, to say that other

                    planets like Earth exist in the Universe (1980, p. 325, emp.


                  Freeman Dyson, in his classic text, Disturbing the Universe,

                  wrote eloquently on this very point:

                    Many of the people who are interested in searching for

                    extraterrestrial intelligence have come to believe in a

                    doctrine which I call the Philosophical Discourse Dogma,

                    maintaining as an article of faith that the universe is

                    filled with societies engaged in long-range philosophical

                    discourse. The Philosophical Discourse Dogma holds the

                    following truths to be self-evident:

                    1. Life is abundant in the universe.

                    2. A significant fraction of the planets on which life

                    exists give rise to intelligent species.

                    3. A significant fraction of intelligent species transmit

                    messages for our enlightenment.

                    If these statements are accepted, then it makes sense to

                    concentrate our efforts upon the search for radio messages


   and to ignore other ways of looking for evidence of

                    intelligence in the universe. But to me the Philosophical

                    Discourse Dogma is far from self-evident. There is as yet no

                    evidence either for it or against it (1979, p. 207, emp.


                  These two evolutionists have an excellent point-there is no

                  evidence for any of these grandiose claims regarding

                  "habitable planets."

                  Second, let us note that the claims being made often are

                  blatantly contradictory. For example, consider the following.

                  G.E. Tauber, in his work, Man's View of the Universe (1979, p.

                  339), suggested that there are "about a billion possible

                  candidates in the galaxy alone" where intelligent life could

                  exist. That is one billion planets just in our own Milky Way

                  galaxy. Yet listen to this estimate by Sir Fred Hoyle:

                    Of the two hundred billion or so stars in our galaxy, about

                    eighty per cent fail to met the conditions discussed above

                    as being necessary for life. The remaining twenty per cent

                    are not in multiple star systems and have masses in the

                    appropriate range, three-quarters to one-and-a-half-times

                    the mass of the Sun. The grand total of planetary systems in

                    the galaxy capable of supporting life is therefore close to

                    forty billion (1978, p. 145).

                  Notice that these two men are both discussing the same

                  thing-potentially habitable planets in the same galaxy (the

                  Milky Way). Yet one places the number at one billion, while

                  the other sets it at forty billion. And their books were

                  published within one year of each other! Mark Twain, by all

                  accounts, was correct when he observed in Life on the

                  Mississippi: "There is something fascinating about science.

                  One gets such a wholesale return of conjecture for such a

                  trifling investment of facts" (1883, p. 156). How can we be

                  expected to accept as credible figures that are as vastly

                  different as these?

                  Third, those who wish to convince us of a "directed

                  panspermia" via some intelligence in outer space apparently

                  have failed to understand that they have not addressed the

                  issue at hand; they merely have moved it to another planet.

                  Creationists are not the only ones who see this as a problem.

                  Fox and Dose, two evolutionists who figure prominently in

                  origin-of-life research, commented: "Another criticism that

                  has been voiced is that moving the origin of life to an

                  extraterrestrial site also moves the problem to that locale.

                  Only by the broadest interpretation invoking organic chemical

                  precursors can the site be stretched to such a distance"

                  (1977, p. 324). The question obviously arises: "Did the

                  intelligence that allegedly directed the panspermia evolve, or

                  was it created?" And we find ourselves right back where we

                  started. Whether there is intelligent life in outer space or

                  not does not answer the basic question of where that life, or

                  life on Earth, originated.

                  Fourth, there is absolutely no evidence whatsoever for life on

                  other planets. Scientists have little choice but to admit this

                  fact, as the following quotations clearly indicate.

                  (1) Ervin Laszlo, in his book, Evolution: The Grand Synthesis,

                  observed: "The search for life, especially intelligent life,

                  outside the confines of our home planet has always fascinated

                  poets and scientists; in recent years it has motivated major

                  research efforts. Alas, these efforts have not brought

                  positive results" (1970, p. 122, emp. added).

                  (2) Paul Davies noted: "Although we have no supportive

                  evidence at all, it would be surprising if life were not

                  widespread throughout the cosmos, though it may be rather

                  sparse" (1980, p. 151, emp. added).

                  (3) Theodosius Dobzhansky and his co-authors, in their text,

                  Evolution, stated: "The subject of extraterrestrial life,

                  exobiology, is a curious field of science, since its subject

                  matter has never been observed and may not exist" (1977, p.

                  366, emp. added).

                  (4) The late Isaac Asimov, in reviewing several books for

                  Science Digest, offered his comments on one by I.S. Shklovskii

                  and Carl Sagan (Intelligent Life in the Universe). In his

                  review, Dr. Asimov said: "There are so many books on

                  extraterrestrial life (I have written one myself) that they

                  would almost seem to be a cottage industry. This is in a way

                  surprising, since we have absolutely no evidence that any such

                  phenomenon as life on other worlds exists" (1982, p. 36, emp.

                  added). When Dr. Asimov observed that we have "absolutely no

                  evidence" of extraterrestrial life, his statement, and the

                  conclusion to be drawn from it, hardly could be any plainer.

                  (5) Hubert P. Yockey, writing in the Journal of Theoretical

                  Biology, remarked:

                    Faith in the infallible and comprehensive doctrines of

                    dialectic materialism plays a crucial role in origin of life

                    scenarios, and especially in exobiology and its ultimate

                    consequence, the doctrine of advanced extra-terrestrial

                    civilization. That life must exist somewhere in the solar

                    system or "suitable planets elsewhere" is widely and

                    tenaciously believed in spite of lack of evidence, or even

                    abundant evidence to the contrary (1981, p. 27, emp. added).

                  (6) In an article on "Being Optimistic about the Search for

                  Extraterrestrial Intelligence" that appeared in American

                  Scientist, astronomers David Schwartzman and Lee J. Rickard


                    The basic argument for an optimistic assessment of the

                    likelihood of intelligence elsewhere in the universe is

                    really a reassertion of the ancient belief in the plurality

                    of worlds, the idea that our own world must be duplicated

                    elsewhere. In modern form, the idea assumes that, in the

                    absence of evidence to the contrary, conditions favorable to

                    the emergence of life and intelligence as they exist here on

                    earth are present abundantly in the universe.

                    Is it still reasonable to be optimistic about the search for

                    extraterrestrial intelligence? After all, researchers around

                    the world have been listening for electromagnetic signals

                    from other civilizations in the universe for more than 25

                    years now, using ever larger telescopes and increasingly

                    sophisticated equipment. [Cosmologist Frank] Tipler

                    estimates that 120,000 hours of observing time have been

                    spent on the search, with, of course, no positive results

                    (1988, 73:364).

                  (7) Four years later, in his article, "Is Anybody Out There?,"

                  for a special edition of Time magazine, Dennis Overbye asked:

                    And what if, after a millennium of listening and looking,

                    there is only silence-what if we still seem alone? If

                    interstellar migration is as easy and inevitable as Finney

                    and Jones have outlined, and if the galaxy, 10 billion years

                    old, is populated by other advanced races, critics of SETI

                    [Search for Extraterrestrial Intelligence-BT] argue, ETs

                    should have come calling by now. There is no scientific

                    evidence that they have, and the lack of it has led some

                    scientists to argue that there is no life out there at all

                    (1992, pp. 79-80; references to Finney and Jones are to Ben

                    Finney, physicist at the Los Alamos, New Mexico National

                    Laboratory, and Eric Jones, anthropologist of the University

                    of Hawaii).

                  (8) That same year, Dava Sobel wrote an article for Life

                  magazine by the same title ("Is Anybody Out There?"),

                  discussing the work of Dr. Jill Tarter, NASA's project

                  scientist (the agency's chief administrative officer) in the

                  search for extraterrestrial intelligence [SETI]. Sobel


                    For all her childhood fascination with interstellar travel,

                    Jill Tarter, now 48, would be the first to tell you that

                    extraterrestrials have never visited earth and probably

                    never will. NASA SETI researchers dismiss flying saucer

                    reports and alien abduction stories. Most do not believe

                    that travel over vast distances in space is possible or

                    desirable. The energy required for sending bodies through

                    space, unlike radio waves that have no mass, numbs the minds

                    of even the most nimble scientists. Conservative estimates

                    indicate that a spaceship carrying 10 people and traveling 5

                    light years to and from a nearby star system at 70 percent

                    of the speed of light would consume 500,000 times the amount

                    of energy used in the U.S. this year (1992, 15[9]:67).

                  (9) Robert Jastrow, the founder and former director of the

                  Goddard Institute for Space Studies at NASA and the current

                  director of the Mount Wilson Observatory, was asked to review

                  the 1996 book, The Biological Universe, by Steven J. Dick. In

                  his review, Dr. Jastrow wrote:

                    All these numbers are so small that, even when multiplied by

                    the vast number of planets probably present in the universe,

                    they force us to conclude that the Earth must be the only

                    planet bearing life (1997, pp. 62-63).

                  (10) That same year, Robert Naeye wrote an article for

                  Astronomy magazine titled "OK, Where Are They?" In his

                  article, he commented:

                    If one chooses to shun speculation and stick solely with

                    observations, one can ask the same question that Nobel

                    physicist Enrico Fermi put forth in 1950: If the Galaxy is

                    teeming with intelligent life, where are they? The sobering

                    reality is that there is no observational evidence

                    whatsoever for the existence of other intelligent beings

                    anywhere in the universe.

                    But until that happens, it seems prudent to conclude that we

                    are alone in a vast cosmic ocean, that in one important

                    sense, we ourselves are special in that we go against the

                    Copernican grain. If so, humanity represents matter and

                    energy evolved to its highest level; whereby a tiny part of

                    the universe on a small rock orbiting an average star in the

                    outskirts of an ordinary spiral galaxy has brought itself to

                    a state of consciousness that can ponder the questions of

                    how the universe, and life itself, began, and what it all

                    means (1996, 24:42-43).

                  (11) A year later, Seth Shostak penned an article for

                  Astronomy magazine, "When E.T. Calls Us," in which he

                  discussed the results (or lack thereof) of the SETI program.

                    This is Project Phoenix, the most comprehensive search ever

                    undertaken for intelligent company among the stars. Run by

                    the SETI Institute of Mountain View, California, it is the

                    privately funded descendant of a former NASA program. Here,

                    at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory's 140-foot

                    telescope in Green Bank, Project Phoenix scientists are

                    systematically scrutinizing a thousand nearby sun-like stars

                    for the faint signal that would betray intelligent

                    habitation. So far, they have found nothing-not a single,

                    extraterrestrial peep (1997, 24:37).

                  (12) Then, in his 2001 book, The Borderlands of Science,

                  Michael Shermer, editor of Skeptic magazine, wrote: "In three

                  decades [Carl] Sagan changed the theory [of the existence of

                  extraterrestrial life-BT] from heresy to orthodoxy, even

                  though there still exists not one iota of concrete evidence of

                  any life, simple or complex, intelligent or not, beyond Earth"

                  (p. 217, emp. added).


                  Some will ask what, if anything, the Bible has to say about

                  this subject. The astute Bible student is aware of the silence

                  of the Scriptures on this particular matter. The biblical

                  record does not affirm the existence of extraterrestrial life.

                  [NOTE: The word "extraterrestrial" is used here to denote

                  beings with physical makeups, as opposed to spiritual beings

                  such as angels.]

                  The Bible does make many positive statements about the Earth

                  and the Universe. And in those statements, it is clear that

                  the Earth has been appointed a very unique role. For example,

                  the psalmist stated that "the heaven, even the heavens, are

                  the Lord's: but the earth hath he given to the children of

                  men" (115:16). The Earth, apparently, was created uniquely for

                  mankind. Statements made by the inspired apostle Paul in Acts

                  17:24-26 echo this same sentiment. It is of interest to note

                  that many celestial bodies-the Moon, the Sun, and stars-are

                  mentioned in Scripture, and even spoken of as having definite

                  purposes. Specifically, the Sun and Moon are said to be useful

                  for marking off days, seasons, and years (Genesis 1:14). And,

                  we are informed that "one star differeth from another star in

                  glory" (1 Corinthians 15:41). Yet no celestial body, except

                  the Earth, is spoken of in Scripture as being a "dwelling


                  Furthermore, the Earth is unique in that Christ's activities

                  are described as having occurred on this planet. It was on the

                  Earth that the godhead became incarnate through Christ (see

                  John 1:1ff.). It was on the Earth that Christ died for the

                  sins of men (Hebrews 2:9). It was on the Earth that His bodily

                  resurrection occurred (1 Corinthians 15), and from the Earth

                  that He ascended to His Father in heaven (Acts 1:9-10;

                  Ephesians 4:8-10).

                  There is also another aspect that should be considered in this

                  light. The Bible clearly states that "God is love" (1 John

                  4:8). Love, of course, allows freedom of choice, and the

                  Scriptures make it clear that God does exactly that (see

                  Joshua 24:15; John 5:39-40). Since God is the Creator of the

                  Universe (Genesis 1:1ff.), and since He likewise is no

                  respector of persons (Acts 10:34), were He to create other

                  intelligent life, His loving nature would require that freedom

                  of choice be granted to such life forms. It also follows that

                  since God is loving, He would offer instruction to such

                  intelligent beings-just as He has to man-on the proper use of

                  freedom of choice. Creatures possessing free moral agency,

                  however, are not perfect; they make mistakes. Such mistakes

                  (violations of God's instructions) require that justice be

                  administered, since God is not only loving, but just. Because

                  God is merciful, He institutes a way for those separated from

                  Him-as a result of their own mistakes-to return. The

                  Scriptures, however, teach that there is only one way to stand

                  justified before God, and that is through His Son (John 14:6).

                  [NOTE: The angelic host, while certainly possessing freedom of

                  choice, was not allowed this opportunity, apparently due to

                  its completely spiritual (i.e., nonphysical) nature, and to

                  the fact that angels had experienced God's glory firsthand as

                  they stood in His presence. Therefore they were without any

                  excuse for their rebellion against His authority (Hebrews


                  The Scriptures also speak to one other important point. The

                  Hebrew writer stated that Christ died "once for all" (7:27;

                  9:28). The wording in the original Greek is explicit, meaning

                  that Christ's death was a once-for-all, never-to-be-repeated

                  event. Creatures possessing freedom of choice make mistakes in

                  attempting to carry out God's will. Forgiveness of those

                  mistakes comes only through Christ (John 14:6). Since Christ

                  died only once (Hebrews 7:27), it is a seeming violation of

                  Scripture to suggest that He somehow go "planet hopping" to

                  die again and again as the propitiation for infractions of

                  God's plan by creatures (possessing freedom of choice) in

                  other parts of this vast Universe. These biblical principles

                  should not be overlooked in any discussion of the existence of

                  extraterrestrial life.


                  The only conclusion that can be drawn currently is that

                  science has produced no credible evidence of intelligent life

                  in outer space. There have been many speculations and opinions

                  offered, but empirical evidence for the existence of

                  extraterrestrial life is completely lacking. A good suggestion

                  might be, therefore, that we spend our time on more important



                  Asimov, Isaac (1982), "Book Reviews," Science Digest,

                  90[3]:36, March. The book by I.S. Shklovskii and Carl Sagan,

                  Intelligent Life in the Universe, was published by Holden-Day,

                  New York, 1966.

                  Crick, Francis (1981), Life Itself (New York: Simon &


                  Davies, Paul (1980), Other Worlds (New York: Simon &


                  Dobzhansky, Theodosius, F.J. Ayala, G.L. Stebbins, and J.W.

                  Valentine (1977), Evolution (San Francisco: W.H. Freeman).

                  Dyson, Freeman (1979), Disturbing the Universe (New York:

                  Harper & Row).

                  Fox, Sidney and Klaus Dose (1977), Molecular Evolution and the

                  Origin of Life (New York: Marcel Dekker).

                  Hoyle, Fred (1978), Lifecloud (New York: Harper & Row).

                  Hoyle, Fred (1981), "Hoyle on Evolution," Nature, 294:148,

                  November 12.

                  Jastrow, Robert (1997), "What are the Chances for Life?,"

                  [review of The Biological Universe, by Steven J. Dick (London,

                  England; Cambridge University Press, 1996, 578 pp.)], Sky and

                  Telescope, June.

                  Laszlo, Ervin (1987), Evolution: The Grand Synthesis (Boston:

                  Shambhala Publishing).

                  Leonard, Jonathon N. (1984), "Other-Worldly Life," The Sacred

                  Beetle, ed. Martin Gardner (Buffalo, NY: Prometheus; essay

                  originally published in 1953).

                  Naeye, Robert (1996), "OK, Where Are They?," Astronomy,

                  24:42-43, July.

                  Orgel, Leslie (1982), "Darwinism at the Very Beginning of

                  Life," New Scientist, pp. 149-152, April 15.

                  Overbye, Dennis (1992), "Is Anybody Out There?," Time [special

                  issue], Fall.

                  Ridpath, Ian (1975), Signs of Life (New York: Penguin).

                  Rowan-Robinson, Michael (1980), "The Infrared Landscape," New

                  Scientist, January 31.

                  Sagan, Carl (1980), New Scientist, January 17.

                  Schwartzman, David, and Lee J. Rickard (1988), "Being

                  Optimistic about the Search for Extraterrestrial

                  Intelligence," American Scientist, 76:364, July/August.

                  Shermer, Michael (2001), The Borderlands of Science (Oxford,

                  England: Oxford University Press).

                  Shostak, Seth (1997), "When E.T. Calls Us," Astronomy, 25:37,


                  Sobel, Dava (1992), "Is Anybody Out There?," Life, 15[9]:67,


                  Tauber, G.E. (1979), Man's View of the Universe (New York:


                  Twain, Mark (1883), Life on the Mississippi (Boston, MA: J.R.


                  Yockey, Hubert P. (1981), "Self-organization Origin of Life

                  Scenarios and Information Theory," Journal of Theoretical

                  Biology, 91:13-31.

                  Originally published in Reason and Revelation, October 1991,

                  11[10]:37-40. Copyright (c) 1991. Revised 2001. Apologetics

                  Press, Inc. All Rights Reserved.

                  We are happy to grant permission for items in the "Frequently

                  Asked Questions" section to be reproduced in their entirety...

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